Apr 06 2012

The impact of smoking on the skin

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If for no other reason to refrain from smoking as it affects the appearance of your skin. The skin has a grayish smoke damage, loss of appearance.

Studies on the effects of smoking on skin:

The South Korean study of smokers, nonsmokers and former smokers aged 20 to 69 years showed that smokers had a higher degree of face wrinkles than nonsmokers and former smokers. Past smokers who smoked at a younger age showed fewer wrinkles than those of smokers. Recent studies have shown that the aging effects of smoking may be associated with increased production of an enzyme that breaks down collagen in the skin. Collagen is the major structural protein of skin, which maintains skin elasticity.

Chief Medical Officer emphasized the link between smokings and wrinkled, damaged skin, the 2003 annual report. The report notes that the skin of smokers can get prematurely aged from 10 to 20 years and, despite the harmful effects of tobacco smoke on skin are irreversible, further deterioration can be avoided by quitting.

Results:
In general, the skin is affected by exposure to tobacco smoke in the following ways:

• First, tobacco smoke in the environment has a drying effect on the skin surface.

• Second, because smoking restricts blood vessels, reduces the amount of blood flowing to the skin, thus depleting the skin of oxygen and essential nutrients.

• Smoking reduces the store of vitamin A, which provides protection against some skin-damaging agents produced by smoking.

• Increase in the mouth when drawing on a cigarette can lead to wrinkles around the eyes and mouth.
• The more a person smokes, the greater the risk of premature wrinkles.

• Smokers in their 40s are often as many facial wrinkles as non-smokers in the 60s.

• Smokers may develop hollow cheeks through repeated sucking cigarettes. This is especially true in countries with weight smokers and can cause smokers to look gaunt.

• Prolonged smoking causes discoloration of the fingers and nails of the hands used to hold cigarettes.
• Smoking also leads to a yellowing of the teeth and cause bad breath or halitosis.

Smoking and psoriasis.

Smokers are two to three times higher risk of developing psoriasis, chronic skin diseases. This is not life threatening, but can be extremely painful and disfiguring. Some studies have found dose-response association of smoking and psoriasis, which means that the risk increases if the person continues to smoke. Smoking also seems to be more closely related to psoriasis among women than among men. Smoking may cause more than a quarter of all cases of psoriasis and may also contribute to more than half of the palm-plantar pustules, skin diseases associated with hands and feet, which is a form of psoriasis.

Long-term smoking can have negative effects on your skin. While the cosmetic changes, such as premature wrinkles and skin discoloration, not life-threatening, the skin (meaning that affect the skin) manifestations can be a powerful incentive for some to quit. This may be especially true for those who started smoking because of them felt that it was “glamorous”, only to discover that the reality takes them further away from the image of movie stars that they seek. The development of wrinkles is a natural part of aging, but smoking effectively accelerates aging and makes smokers appear years older than they really are. Premature wrinkles, dry, grayish skin, drawn through the hollow cheeks, maybe all of the haggard face of a chronic smoker. There may be other, more serious consequences for smokers, including increased risk of certain cancers of the skin and thinning of the skin. Back in the mid-nineteenth century, it was found that smoking can lead to significant changes in the color of a person’s face. This includes premature wrinkles and loss of skin elasticity, giving the smoker a rough, haggard look and a little red or orange color. There was, however, did little to back it up with research. It was not until 1985, when Dr. Douglas Model of an article in the British Medical Journal, in which he coined the “smoker face” of the term. (1). In this paper, the model discussed, as about half of the long-term smokers studied, then smoked for ten years or more, came to possess the same features as a result of damage caused by smoking. These features were typical of long-term smokers and could be observed, regardless of the age of the smoker, their weight, or degree of their exposure to the sun.

“The Face of the smoker” is due to toxins involved in the process of smoking a number of significant changes in skin color, and color. As chemicals from cigarettes are absorbed into the bloodstream, they constrict blood vessels, including the tiny capillaries that are located near the surface of the skin. Increased carbon monoxide smoking reduces the amount of oxygen that is then sent to areas of skin. This means that even less oxygen and nutrients reach the skin through the narrowed blood vessels. Along with this there is the possibility of direct exposure to tobacco smoke irritates and dries out the skin. In the case of the smoker, skin moisture level may already be reduced due to the diuretic effect that nicotine has on the body. Symptoms of «smoker’s face» include a number of different characteristics.

The famous lines and wrinkles are usually seen emanating from the corners of the eyes (“crow’s feet”), even expanding on his cheek. Cheeks by themselves may appear sunken. Other lines of wrinkles were etched perpendicular to the lips, with fine lines that form on the cheeks and lower jaw. Some male smokers may develop distinctive feature is called “cobblestone wrinkles”, which are wrinkles that run down the back of the neck. Bone structure of the face becomes more noticeable when painted to tease the skin, which loses its elasticity. The skin may take on the dry, hard, leathery appearance. Colorful, slightly reddened, orange and purple color of the face may be due to insufficient oxygenation of the blood, similar to what happens during the cyanosis. In other cases, the complexion a smoker may develop red, unnatural pallor, because it is more atrophied than the skin of non-smokers. Other factors such as stress, insomnia, pollution and ultraviolet sunlight (UV) rays can have a negative effect on the skin and may predispose the smoker some characteristics attributed to “face the smoker.”

Free radicals, which are oxygen molecules with unpaired electrons that can damage the skin by attacking healthy cells and tissue damage of the skin. Since smoking has population density of free radicals, increases the amount of free radicals in the body. Smoking can also reduce the store of vitamin A, which is used in the process of recovery. Smoking may interfere with skin regenerative properties. In 1977 LH Mosely and F. Finseth has published an article in which smoking is regarded as a violation of wound healing capabilities due to reduced blood flow as a result it has caused. (2). other studies have since backed up the data, factoring in the percentage decrease in blood flow caused by smoking-induced vasoconstriction and recording duration. It is well known that smoking reduces the skin’s ability to regenerate, slowing the rate at which wounds heal and increases the chance of scarring, particularly with regard to postoperative flaps and grafts. That’s why patients are asked not to smoke long before undergoing surgery.

It is perhaps ironic that smoking is one of the main reasons why someone may need reconstruction, actually reduces the chances of a surgical procedure, the success of the blood supply to the threat to adjacent tissue. Some cosmetic surgeons even to measure the level of nicotine in the blood of the patient prior to the facelift because of this emergency. Smoking will also prevent the possibility of a skin graft to succeed, because the skin graft to generate new blood vessels in the kidney soon after he dies attached to or create scar tissue. Constriction of blood vessels near the surface of the skin decreases the amount of oxygen available and affects the removal of dead cells and toxins. Another consequence of smoking is that it disrupts the body uses to repair the skin, reducing the amount of this protein collagen in the skin. Collagen creates a new, healthy skin and connective tissue, which is about 80% of the normal skin. When someone smokes, they effectively reduce the amount of nutrients stored in the skin, which means that less collagen is possible to repair the damage. the key to the renewal process of the enzyme metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), which destroys the collagen fiber, old leather and elastic fabric. Before the body can make a new skin, it must break down old and this is achieved through the destruction of MMP-1 fibers, a form of collagen. Problem for smokers, that smoking activates the enzyme more than is normally present in non-smokers, creating a shortage of collagen. (3). without enough collagen to update, the skin gradually loses its elasticity, becomes dry and wrinkled.

The concentration of MMP-1 in the skin of a smoker has been the subject of research led by Professor Anthony Young and his colleagues at Guy’s, Kings and the schools St Thomas’ Medicine in London. Their tests showed that significantly more, MMP-1 genetic material present in the buttock skin of smokers, when compared with nonsmokers. In another study, Akimichi Morita and researchers at Nagoya City University Medical School added a drop of solution of smoke dishes of human fibroblasts, skin cells that produce collagen. Smoke from cigarettes sucked and pumped through a saline solution. After only one day, these cells are exposed to cigarette smoke produced significantly more MMP, and up to 40% less collagen than normal skin cells will be. More concentrated the smoke was introduced into the skin cells so that more collagen was hurt.

With less collagen is available, resulting in an increase in these symptoms was associated with the aging of the skin. Other studies show that smoking can cause skin irritation in fact, to become thinner. A study conducted by scientists Twin Research Unit at St Thomas’ Hospital in London, led by Dr Tim Spector, studied 50 sets of twins who were separated for long-term smokers and nonsmokers. Ultrasound was used to assess the internal arm skin thickness of the twins, and the results were compared. Twin Research Unit, found that those subjects who smoked was around 25% of the skin, and even up to 40% thinner than their non-smoking siblings. The skin of the twin who smoked also exhibited characteristics of an ordinary smoker is less flexible and more wrinkled. There is also evidence that smoking can lead to DNA damage, which in turn has a detrimental effect on the skin. Dr. Jan Bavinck from Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands examined samples of 580 persons with various types of skin cancer and looked at some of them who smoked. (4). Squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of skin cancer is usually caused by prolonged exposure to sunlight, which is more typical of older, pale-skinned, fair-haired people.

Tumors of this type of cancer often begin as small lumps, or skin that can spread if not treated. Despite the rather aggressive form of cancer, it has a high success rate in treatment, usually involving surgery. Dr. Bavinck found that people who currently smoke about 11 to 20 cigarettes a day were three times more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma. After the establishment of smoking is an independent risk factor, the risk was recognized, respectively, increased and more people are smoking. For smokers who smoke less than this amount, the risk of developing cancer was reduced, but still twice the normal speed. A team of researchers has suggested that this was due to smoking-caused damage to DNA in skin tissue, which then produced the abnormal growth of cells. Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen carried in blood and people with spinal cord injuries (SCI), who also smoke have been shown to have a higher incidence of pressure ulcers and have a slow recovery time from these ulcers. (5).

People with spinal cord injury to transfer the weight of the body are constantly evolving in order to prevent pressure sores caused by lying on one area of the skin. This is so oxygenated blood can carry nutrients to the skin and remove the waste, so that skin remains healthy. Smoking, especially nicotine, reduces blood flow to the extremities by compressing the blood vessels. Carbon monoxide from smoking and prevent oxygen from included in the blood. As a result, less oxygenated blood and nutrients are delivered to the skin, and the volume of waste removed from the skin is reduced. This is the reason why smokers with SCIS more likely to develop skin problems such as bedsores. Documented materials on this topic, you can leave no doubt that the long-term damage of smoking on the skin. Will there be a consequence of the fact that it makes smokers look older than they make them more susceptible to certain types of skin cancer, or that it interferes with the skin’s ability to heal itself, the fact remains that smoking does not offer anything useful for the skin. Like most other smoking-related illnesses, the best way to avoid developing a “person smoker” is to quit smoking before it becomes established. The longer a person smokes, the worse the damage to the skin will be much less pronounced telltale signs of a “person smoker” has become. Some young smokers who ignore the more pernicious effects of smoking may be more inclined to listen to the warning that smoking makes them less attractive. This, of course, not the person depicted in the tobacco industry ads that show young and beautiful.

 

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